Knowledge Exchange by ISID

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1 AutoAttendance cr.
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Activity Title: COVID-19 Pandemic or Endemic
Release Date: May 5, 2022Estimated Time to Complete Activity: 70 minutes

Statement of Need:

COVID-19 eradication is unlikely. During the pandemic, as vaccination programs began nearly everywhere, herd immunity was suggested as the outcome to control SARS CoV-2 replication and dissemination. However, today, as we are facing waning vaccine efficacy, new variants of the virus with different pathogenic patterns, scientists and public health authorities are suggesting the pandemic is over and that we are in an endemic phase. Raina MacIntyre explains why this is not so, and that SARS-CoV-2 will continue to cause epidemics and likely a substantial burden of chronic disease. Better control will improve these outcomes.

To achieve this, a vaccine-PLUS strategy is needed, with layered protections including testing, tracing, safe indoor air, and masks. Vaccine equity globally must also be addressed.

Professor Raina MacIntyre (MBBS Hons 1, FRACP, FAFPHM, M App Epid, PhD)
NHMRC Principal Research Fellow and Professor of Global Biosecurity.
She heads the Biosecurity Program at the Kirby Institute, which conducts research in epidemiology, vaccinology, bioterrorism prevention, mathematical modeling, genetic epidemiology, public health, and clinical trials in infectious diseases. 

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Contact Information
If you have questions about this CME activity, please contact The International Society for Infectious Diseases at

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Upon completion of this module, participants should be able to:

  • Discuss the future of COVID-19 and the likelihood of the eradication of the virus.
  • Discuss the implications of waning vaccine efficacy and new variants of the virus with different pathogenic patterns
  • Discuss whether or not we are now in an endemic phase of the virus. 
  • Discuss the importance of a vaccine-PLUS strategy, with layered protections including testing, tracing, safe indoor air, and masks. 
  • Understand the importance of addressing global vaccine equity.

The target audience for this module is physicians, nurses, public health officials, researchers, immunization officers, and other health professionals.

Disclosure Policy
In accordance with the EACCME Standards for Commercial Support, the International Society for Infectious Diseases (ISID) requires that individuals in a position to control the content of an educational activity disclose all relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest. ISID resolves all conflicts of interest to ensure independence, objectivity, balance, and scientific rigor in all our educational programs. Furthermore, ISID seeks to verify that all scientific research referred to, reported, or used in a CME/CE activity conforms to the generally accepted standards of experimental design, data collection, and analysis. ISID is committed to providing learners with high-quality CME/CE activities that promote improvements in health care and not those of commercial interest.

Activity Staff Disclosures:
The planners, reviewers, editors, staff, or other members at the International Society for Infectious Diseases who control content have no relevant financial relationships to disclose. 
ISID Knowledge Exchange and E-Learning Platform Organizing Committee members are listed here, along with Committee members’ disclosure forms. 

Faculty Disclosures:

Professor Raina MacIntyre has the following potential conflict of interest:
Receipt of grants/research support: Sanofi

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use

The International Society for Infectious Diseases requires CME faculty (speakers) to disclose when products or procedures being discussed are off-label, unlabeled, experimental, and/or investigational, and any limitations on the information that is presented, such as data that are preliminary, or that represent ongoing research, interim analyses, and/or unsupported opinion. Faculty in this activity may discuss information about pharmaceutical agents that is outside of US Food and Drug Administration-approved labeling. This information is intended solely for continuing medical education and is not intended to promote off-label use of these medications. ISID does not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications. If you have questions, contact the Medical Affairs Department of the manufacturer for the most recent prescribing information.


The International Society for Infectious Diseases presents this information for educational purposes only. The content is provided solely by faculty who have been selected because of recognized expertise in their field. Participants have the professional responsibility to ensure that products are prescribed and used appropriately on the basis of their own clinical judgment and accepted standards of care. The International Society for Infectious Diseases, and the former commercial supporter assume no liability for the information herein.
Copyright Information
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Privacy Policy
The International Society for Infectious Diseases protects the privacy of personal and other information regarding participants and educational collaborators. The International Society for Infectious Diseases will not release personally identifiable information to a third party without the individual's consent, except such information as is required for reporting purposes to the EACCME.
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Additional information regarding the International Society for Infectious Diseases Privacy Policy and ISID’s Knowledge Exchange and E-Learning Platform Privacy Policy can be viewed at and

COVID-19: Pandemic or Endemic

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