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Activity Title: Understanding a Protective COVID-19 Immune Response

Release Date: February 18, 2021

Estimated Time to Complete Activity: 70 minutes

Statement of Need:

The exact duration of immunity induced by natural COVID-19 infection or the newly produced COVID-19 vaccines is still unclear. Natural infection and coronavirus vaccines induce both humoral (antibody-induced) and cellular immune responses and both are important for protection from COVID-19. Multiple studies indicate that neutralizing antibodies decline 6 months after natural infection, and it is not yet clear if cellular immunity will provide longer protection. Some studies show the more severe the natural COVID-19 infection, the higher the immune response and the longer the protection. During this session, experts will discuss the current understanding of what constitutes an effective COVID-19 immune response and discuss the implications of emerging variants for natural re-infection, vaccine escape and antibody treatments. They will explain the concept of herd immunity as a key concept of epidemic control and discuss the current understanding of protective COVID-19 immune responses in special populations such as the elderly, children and the obese. 

Faculty:
Professor Rob Heyderman
Head, Research Department of Infection, UCL
Director, NIHR Global Health Research Unit on Mucosal Pathogens (MPRU)

Professor  Lisa Ng
Senior Principal Investigator at Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN) and  Executive Director of the Biomedical Research Council at A*STAR

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Contact Information

If you have questions about this CME activity, please contact The International Society for Infectious Diseases at  info@isid.org.

For technical support issues, please contact Multilearning at support@multilearning.com

Supported by an Unrestricted Educational Grant from Pfizer Global Medical Grants

Upon completion of this module, participants should be able to:

  • Explain the duration of immunity induced by natural COVID-19 infection and the newly produced COVID-19 vaccines
  • Understand current research/studies surrounding both natural infection- and coronavirus vaccine- induced humoral (antibody-induced) and cellular immune responses with respect to protection from COVID-19.
  • Restate the current understanding of what constitutes an effective COVID-19 immune response and the implications of emerging variants for natural re-infection, vaccine escape and antibody treatments
  • Describe the concept of herd immunity as a key concept of epidemic control 
  • Discuss the current understanding of protective COVID-19 immune responses in special populations such as the elderly, children and the obese

The target audience for this module is physicians, nurses, public health officials, researchers, immunization officers, and other health professionals

Relevant references:

1.      Legros V, Denolly S, Vogrig M, et al. A longitudinal study of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients reveals a high correlation between neutralizing antibodies and COVID-19 severity. Cell Mol Immunol. 2021 Jan 6. doi: 10.1038/s41423-020-00588-2. Online here ahead of print. PMID: 33408342.

2.      Post N, Eddy D, Huntley C, et al. Antibody Response to SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Humans: A Systematic Review. PLoS One. 2020 Dec 31; 15(12):e0244126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244126. eCollection 2020.

3.      Pollard AJ, Bijker EM. A Guide to Vaccinology: From Basic Principles to New Developments. Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 Dec 22:1-18. doi: 10.1038/s41577-020-00479-7. Online here ahead of print. PMID: 33353987.

4.      Hodgson SH, Mansatta K, Mallett G, et al. What Defines an Efficacious COVID-19 Vaccine? A Review of the Challenges Assessing the Clinical Efficacy of Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 27; S1473-3099(20)30773-8. doi: 10.1016/S1473–3099(20)30773-8. Online here ahead of print. PMID: 33125914.

5.      Ledford H. How Obesity Could Create Problems for a COVID Vaccine. Nature. 2020 Oct; 586(7830):488–489. doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-02946-6.PMID: 33082543. Online here.

6.      Soiza RL, Scicluna C, Thomson EC. Efficacy and Safety of COVID-19 Vaccines in Older people. Age Ageing. 2020 Dec 2:afaa274. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afaa274. Online here ahead of print. PMID: 33320183.

7.      Kamidani S, Rostad CA, Anderson EJ. COVID-19 Vaccine Development: A Pediatric Perspective. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2021 Feb 1; 33(1):144–151. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000978. PMID: 33278108. Online here.

Supported by an Unrestricted Educational Grant from Pfizer Global Medical Grants

Disclosure Policy

In accordance with the EACCME Standards for Commercial Support, the International Society for Infectious Diseases (ISID) requires that individuals in a position to control the content of an educational activity disclose all relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest. ISID  resolves all conflicts of interest to ensure independence, objectivity, balance, and scientific rigor in all our educational programs. Furthermore, ISID seeks to verify that all scientific research referred to, reported, or used in a CME/CE activity conforms to the generally accepted standards of experimental design, data collection, and analysis. ISID is committed to providing learners with high-quality CME/CE activities that promote improvements in health care and not those of a commercial interest.

Activity Staff Disclosures:

The planners, reviewers, editors, staff, or other members at the International Society for Infectious Diseases who control content have no relevant financial relationships to disclose. 

ISID Knowledge Exchange and E-Learning Platform Organizing Committee members are listed here along with Committee members’ disclosure forms. 

Faculty Disclosures:

The following faculty report that they have no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this program/presentation:

Professor Robert S. Heyderman
Professor Lisa F. P. Ng 

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use

The International Society for Infectious Diseases  requires CME faculty (speakers) to disclose when products or procedures being discussed are off label, unlabeled, experimental, and/or investigational, and any limitations on the information that is presented, such as data that are preliminary, or that represent ongoing research, interim analyses, and/or unsupported opinion. Faculty in this activity may discuss information about pharmaceutical agents that is outside of US Food and Drug Administration approved labeling. This information is intended solely for continuing medical education and is not intended to promote off-label use of these medications. ISID does not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications. If you have questions, contact the Medical Affairs Department of the manufacturer for the most recent prescribing information.

Disclaimer

The International Society for Infectious Diseases presents this information for educational purposes only. The content is provided solely by faculty who have been selected because of recognized expertise in their field. Participants have the professional responsibility to ensure that products are prescribed and used appropriately on the basis of their own clinical judgment and accepted standards of care. The International Society for Infectious Diseases, and the former commercial supporter assume no liability for the information herein.

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Understanding a Protective COVID-19 Immune Response

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