Knowledge Exchange by ISID

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Activity Title: COVID-19 Vaccinology: Development, Use and Effect on Public Health

Release Date: January 21, 2021

Estimated Time to Complete Activity: 55 minutes

Statement of Need:

Where are we with delivering safe, effacious COVID-19 vaccines globally? What are the challenges and opportunities? This webinar  provides important updates in the currently approved COVID-19 vaccines and an overview of ongoing Phase 3 trials. Attention is paid to the vaccination of special groups such as immunocompromised individuals, children, and pregnant women. Elements required to achieve herd immunity are also discussed.


Neelika Malavige is a Professor and head of the Department of Immunology and Molecular Medicine, the Director of the Centre for Dengue Research, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka and an academic visitor at the MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford. She is also a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, London and a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists, UK. 

Shabir A. Madhi is currently the Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences at the Wits University. His former positions include Professor of Vaccinology in the School of Pathology at the University of the Witwatersrand and Director of the world-renowned Medical Research Council Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Analytics Research Unit (VIDA). Madhi is the National Research Foundation/Department of Science and Innovation SARChI Chair in Vaccine Preventable Diseases and he is Co-Director of African Leadership in Vaccinology Expertise (ALIVE). He chairs the National Advisory Group on Immunization in South Africa. His qualifications include MBBCh (Wits), MMed (Wits), FCPaeds(SA), Ph.D.

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Contact Information

If you have questions about this CME activity, please contact The International Society for Infectious Diseases at

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Supported by an Unrestricted Educational Grant from Pfizer Global Medical Grants

Upon completion of this module, participants should be able to:

  • Discuss where safe, effacious COVID-19 vaccines are being delivered globally
  • Explain the challenges and opportunities for COVID-19 vaccinology
  • Describe important updates in the currently approved COVID-19 vaccines and the ongoing Phase 3 trials
  • Discuss the elements required to achieve herd immunity.

The target audience for this module is physicians, nurses, public health officials, researchers, immunization officers, and other health professionals.

Shinde V, Bhikha S, Hoosain Z, et al; 2019nCoV-501 Study Group. Efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.351 Variant. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 5;384(20):1899–909. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2103055.


Desai AN, Majumder MS. What Is Herd Immunity? JAMA. 2020;324(20):2113. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.20895


Omer SB, Yildirim I, Forman HP. Herd Immunity and Implications for SARS-CoV-2 Control. JAMA. 2020;324(20):2095–2096. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.20892


Kyriakidis, N.C., López-Cortés, A., González, E.V. et al. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines strategies: a comprehensive review of phase 3 candidates. npj Vaccines 6, 28 (2021).


Hodgson SH, Mansatta K, Mallett G, Harris V, Emary KRW, Pollard AJ. What defines an efficacious COVID-19 vaccine? A review of the challenges assessing the clinical efficacy of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 Feb;21(2):e26-e35. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30773-8.


Supported by an Unrestricted Educational Grant from Pfizer Global Medical Grants

Disclosure Policy

In accordance with the EACCME Standards for Commercial Support, the International Society for Infectious Diseases (ISID) requires that individuals in a position to control the content of an educational activity disclose all relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest. ISID  resolves all conflicts of interest to ensure independence, objectivity, balance, and scientific rigor in all our educational programs. Furthermore, ISID seeks to verify that all scientific research referred to, reported, or used in a CME/CE activity conforms to the generally accepted standards of experimental design, data collection, and analysis. ISID is committed to providing learners with high-quality CME/CE activities that promote improvements in health care and not those of a commercial interest.

Activity Staff Disclosures:

The planners, reviewers, editors, staff, or other members at the International Society for Infectious Diseases who control content have no relevant financial relationships to disclose. 

ISID Knowledge Exchange and E-Learning Platform Organizing Committee members are listed here along with Committee members’ disclosure forms. 

Faculty Disclosures:

Professor Neelika Malavige
Affiliation/Financial Interest and Name of Commercial Company
Receipt of honoraria or consultation fees: Sun Pharma (India)

Professor Shabir Madhi
Affiliation/Financial Interest and Name of Commercial Company
Grants/Research Support: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, South Africa Medical Research Council, Novavax
Sponsored Speakers Bureau: Cipla, Novartis

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use

The International Society for Infectious Diseases  requires CME faculty (speakers) to disclose when products or procedures being discussed are off label, unlabeled, experimental, and/or investigational, and any limitations on the information that is presented, such as data that are preliminary, or that represent ongoing research, interim analyses, and/or unsupported opinion. Faculty in this activity may discuss information about pharmaceutical agents that is outside of US Food and Drug Administration approved labeling. This information is intended solely for continuing medical education and is not intended to promote off-label use of these medications. ISID does not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications. If you have questions, contact the Medical Affairs Department of the manufacturer for the most recent prescribing information.


The International Society for Infectious Diseases presents this information for educational purposes only. The content is provided solely by faculty who have been selected because of recognized expertise in their field. Participants have the professional responsibility to ensure that products are prescribed and used appropriately on the basis of their own clinical judgment and accepted standards of care. The International Society for Infectious Diseases, and the former commercial supporter assume no liability for the information herein.

Copyright Information

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Privacy Policy

The International Society for Infectious Diseases protects the privacy of personal and other information regarding participants and educational collaborators. The International Society for Infectious Diseases will not release personally identifiable information to a third party without the individual's consent, except such information as is required for reporting purposes to the ACCME.

The International Society for Infectious Diseases maintains physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards that comply with federal regulations to protect against the loss, misuse, or alteration of information that we have collected from you.

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COVID-19 Vaccinology: Development, Use and Effect on Public Health

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